29 August 2010

The Yellow-footed Gull at The Salton Sea

In the United States, the only reliable location for Yellow-footed Gull (L. livens) is the Salton Sea in southeastern California. Here, there is a sizable post-breeding dispersal from the Gulf of California, usually beginning in late May to early June, and peaking in late July to early August. Peak numbers can be anywhere from 100-300 individuals of varying ages, with adults slightly predominating. Numbers start to gradually decrease through the fall with only a handful lingering through the winter (particularly, at the southeast unit of the sea). By the time the CBC rolls around, birders must really put in an effort to find 1 or 2 individuals hanging around Obsidian Butte. Wintering individuals are usually first-year birds.

The Yellow-footed Gull was once considered conspecific with the Western Gull (L. occidentalis). When looking at the aggregation of differences among YFGU and WEGU one begins to wonder how these two taxa were ever treated as the same species. James Audubon is responsible for originally making this classification and both Ridgeway and Dwight perpetuated the idea, agreeing that Western Gull has a northern form and a southern form -- the southern form being L. o. livens. This classification was made solely on the fact that these two are the only large gulls with dark mantles on the west coast. It is however important to add that Yellow-footed Gull has never been known to occur regularly on the Pacific Coast of California. There are only a handful of records along California’s coast. With regards to the Pacific, Yellow-footed Gull only occurs at the very southern end of Baja California’s coast. In other words, the two are geographically isolated and there is no record of interbreeding; Audubon, Ridgeway and even Dwight were unaware of this isolation in ranges.

Alan Brooks was among the first to question this grouping with his paper, “What Color are the Feet of the Western Gull?". In 1982, 60 years after Brooks' paper, the AOU split the two after Pierre Devillers demonstrated that Yellow-footed acquires definitive plumage in 3 cycles and Western in 4 cycles. In addition, the differences in leg color, voice and nest site preferences clearly warranted a split. The Yellow-footed Gull has a much more lower pitched voice when compared to the almost yelling high pitched tones of Western Gull. Also, Yellow-footed prefers to nest parallel to the tide line on beaches whereas Western prefers higher elevations. I tried to play devil's advocate and found examples from modern day classifications where accepted subspecies are known to show some of these variations.

According to Olsen and Larsson, the nominate race of Lesser Black-backed Gull, Larus fuscus fuscus, is a "three-year gull" whereas L.f intermedius and L.f graellsii are "four-year gulls".  With regard to leg color, a sizable percentage of the East Baltic race of European Herring Gull (L argentatus) has yellow legs as opposed to the the pinkish legs of  the western race. Also, various races of the Herring Gull complex exhibit noticeably different voices. Although unlike WEGU and YFGU, the two races of Herring Gull commonly interbreed when they come in contact. Judith Hand argued that the two, Western and Yellow-footed, have environments that "differ radically" and that although there is no reason to believe the two would not interbreed if they came in contact, how successful such interbreeding might be is another question (Hand, 1981). Hand's statement makes sense considering WEGU and YFGU nest at differing elevations with colonies that are clustered versus linear, respectively. She also argued that interbreeding is certainly not enough to warrant a lumping of any sort, giving the example of L.glaucescens and L.occidentalis.

Having found examples of current gull classifications of where molt cycles, leg color and voice vary among subspecies, I've come to my own conclusion that Devillers' research was not "the" determining factor that brought about the split, but rather, it was the aggregation of differences that many ornithologists had been pointing out since almost immediately after the classification was made by Audubon. Although I'm sure Devillers' work was the straw that broke the camel's back.

I spent a couple days birding the Salton Sea earlier this month (August, 2010). Most of the birds I observed were in heavy molt but I did have the opportunity to observe the various ages of YFGU. I made it a point to spend time observing plenty of Western Gulls along the coast before and after my Salton Sea visit. As I was getting out of my car and changing into my mud boots, I heard an interesting vocalization from the beach that I had never heard before. The only gulls on the beach, as it appeared, were Yellow-footed, California, Ring-billed and Laughing. Having heard the latter three before today, I suspected that the voice I was hearing was that of Yellow-footed. The voice was very distinct: deep, low pitched and somewhat eerie. Indeed, it was an adult Yellow-footed Gull -- ruler of the beach!

Presumably a female on left and male on right.

My lifer Yellow-footed. This is the first individual my eyes met as I drove along the levee road.
Adults are easily separated from Western Gull by leg color. Although, on two occasions during my visit, I watched adult Yellow-footeds fly away with their legs dangling under their tails. The shadow from their tails obscured the yellow color on the feet and legs, resulting in what both Guy McCaskie and I swore was pink. We realized this was a lighting effect playing tricks on our eyes. 

What if the birds are sitting or in the water? There have been more and more isolated sightings of Western Gulls at the Salton Sea. This could make for a great ID challenge. Consider the two birds below:



The top bird is a Western photographed in San Diego and the bottom bird is aYellow-footed photographed at the Salton Sea on the same day.

What is more of a challenge is telling apart the younger-aged individuals. When looking at first cycle birds, notice that Yellow-footed has paler underparts and an obvious white patch on parts of the belly:


 This is very different than a 1st cycle Western that has an overall much darker, chocolate-brown aspect:


A nice mark on 2nd cycle Yellow-footeds is the almost complete lack of barring on the upper-tail coverts. Usually a solid black tailband is distinctive:


Younger Westerns are typically found with heavy markings and barring on the undertail coverts -- at least much heavier than a typical juvenile or first cycle Yellow-footed:

1st cycle Western Gull

1st cycle Yellow-footed

Some will say that Yellow-footed is generally a bigger bird with a heavier bill when compared to Western. This is true, but when considering age/sex differences, I feel these are not helpful ID points. Something else to keep in mind is that subadults do sound similar. It is mainly in adults that a voice difference becomes noticeable.

The Salton Sea can be an incredibly grueling place to bird and is not meant for the faint of heart. I had the pleasure of birding the Sea with the godfather of California birding, Guy McCaskie, who is unquestionably the authority on avian life here. Much of the information in this writing came from Guy per. comm. He was very clear about making sure to have lots of water and a full tank of gas when I came back to bird the sea on my own. He also pointed out some areas where he explicitly said, "You see that muck? Don't go near it or you'll end up neck-deep in it before you know it". I spent hours here on my own and I have to say there is a somewhat eerie feeling to birding here. I'm not sure if it was all of the dead snags, the 110+ degree temps I had been hearing about for months or the Horse-flys that bombard you as soon as you get out of your car:


Perhaps it was the scare I got when I spent about 2 minutes in quicksand, having to surrender my New Balance gym shoes. I thought for sure I was toast!!! Those were maybe the longest 2 minutes of my life. I wiggled my way out and tried not to panic while sweat dripped from every pore of my body. Guy's words of being "neck-deep" somehow reemerged in my memory only after I started sinking. The terrian looks completely traversable and then suddenly you begin to go down in what feels like muddy sand. It's said that if you don't see footprints or tire tracks before you, then don't go any further.


Photo by Mary Beth Stowe

During one of my visits at the Sea, I spent about 5 hours at Obsidian Butte and never once saw or heard another human being. It was a tranquil session of just me and the birds!

Obsidian Butte

The long call of the Yellow-footed Gull still resonates with me when I look at these photos. My mission was accomplished. I got the Yellow-footed and got out of dodge!



All of the gull photos in this post were taken by myself between 6-11 Aug 2010. The Western Gulls were shot at J St Marina and Camp Surf; The Yellow-footed Gulls were photographed between Red Hill and Obsidian Butte.

21 August 2010

Gull Skins at Chicago's Field Museum

A bird in the hand reveals information and provides insight that would be impossible to obtain in the field, even when using the best modern day optics. After reading enough measurements and averages in "Gulls of North America, Europe, and Asia" by Klaus Malling Olsen and Hans Larsson, I decided I would try to gain access to the gull skins at the Field Museum. I contacted David Willard from the avian division at the museum and he was very welcoming. I extended an invitiation to several birders and met with Steve Ambrose, Sam Burckhardt, Tom Lally and Walter Marcisz on the morning of 7 March, 2010. I had several objectives in mind which included a hands-on approach of comparing mantle shades, bill size and shape, and overall structure. I guess you could say this visit was very informal and more play than anything else.

The first thing I did was get my hands on a Pacific Gull (L.pacificus). This gull is known to some as Large-billed Gull or the Australian Gull. It's range is strictly along parts of Australia's coast. A couple of interesting tidbits about this species is one, it has salt glands which help reduce the amount of salt in the bloodstream, and two, it has the thickest bill of all gull species.


It's hard to appreciate this almost comical looking bill without the enitre bird. Compared to other gulls, the bill looks completely disproportionate.

     Photo by Pete Morris

Walt Disney's animation movie "Finding Nemo" tried to do depict this bird since the movie was based around Sydney, Australia. The bill shape is greatly corrupted in this picture below and the mantle color is significantly lighter than it should be - but my children never knew the difference!


Pacific Gull's mantle color is much closer to the widely scattered Kelp Gull (L.dominacanus) of the southern hemisphere. It's interesting to know that PAGU has been driven out of much of its range surrounding the Sydney area due to the Kelp Gull.

Another interesting moment during our visit was this oversized Glaucous Gull that was much more goose-like than gull-like.

Sam Burckhardt showing off this mega-gull.
There are several races of Glaucous Gull but neither shows these proportions. We placed this bird next to a presumed male Great Black-backed Gull:

Adult Little Gull, juvenile Little Gull, Heermann's Gull chick, Herring, Slaty-backed, Great Black-backed, Glaucous Gull.

Anywho, something I had always wanted to do is get a side-by-side shot of Little Gull and Great Black-backed Gull:


This shot speaks to how big GBBG is -- or is it a testimony to how small LIGU is?


One can easily imagine how a GBBG can down a Dovekie for lunch.

We read in field guides that the head of Black-headed Gull is actually a dark brown. I never believed this whole-heartedly. This individual quickly eliminated my previous suspicions:
Bonaparte's Gull: front, Black-headed Gull: back

Field guides readily speak of Laughing Gull's bill being noticably larger and droopier than Franklin's. This difference could be difficult to discern in the field:
Franklin's left, Laughing right; note how the bill color here is not representative of Franklin's and Laughing's true premorteum colors. Dwight made mentiond of this in his Gulls of the World: "Yellow seems to be a color that persists in old skins, all the others fading out, although some reds last very long". 

Although adult California Gulls have darker mantles than both Ring-billed and Herring, this mark can be unfaithful in the field depending on lighting and the angle at which the birds are being observed. Here is a side-by-side of all three species:  

The CAGU should be quite obvious based on mantle color; This is not always so in the field.

Thayer's Gull is a taxon that has perplexed many for almost a century. It was considered a subspecies of Herring Gull up until 1973 when the AOU elevated it to its own species status. Here's an ID tag showing a Thayer's listed under Herring Gull:


 Larus argentatus thayeri, 1934

For what it's worth, the BOU feels Thayer's Gull is a subspecies of Iceland Gull. This opinion is adopted by many Canadian ornithologists as well. Thayer's remains one of the greatest controversies in larophilia and it doesn't look like this taxon will be resolved any time soon. I personally like the idea of Thayer's maintaining species status. As Godfrey himself said, "Thayer's Gull can be distinguished from Kumlien's with considerable confidence in the field". Sure, there's always that intergrade that can't be assigned to either species, but that's because hybrids exist. Some argue that Thayer's is just a form of Iceland. Further, since Thayer's and Kumlien's  interbreed in zones where their ranges overlap, they should be considered one species. I don't think interbreeding, alone, warrants this lumping. What's to be said of Western/Glaucous-winged, Glaucous/Herring, Herring/Glaucous-winged and the likes?

At the end of my visit, I was left with many more questions than I had before coming to the museum. I think I've gained a great appreciation for the work ornithologists do. I'm now hoping to gain access to spread-wing skins which will be very interesting. I'm looking forward to an in-depth session of comparing wingtip patterns.

Morro Bay in January

I had been longing to go out west to gain some exposure to species like Mew, California, Heermann's, Western, and Glaucous-winged Gulls. It was suggested to me that a great variety of west coast gulls can be seen in central California in the winter. I began planning my trip and decided I would attend the Morro Bay Winter Bird Festival in January of 2010. Here, not only would I get a chance to observe my target gull species, but I'd also pick up some other lifers along the way.

On my first day at the festival, I participated in a Big Day that was led by Mike Stiles. Our first stop was Morro Rock where I easily checked off Western Gull. The "rock", as it's referred to by the locals, maintains a nice sized breeding population of WEGUs. This place is truely a marvel.


Adult WEGU. The dark iris suggest the northern race occidentalis. This race tends to have a paler mantle. 

I attended a trip targeting shorebirds and gulls along Estero Bluffs on day 2. Our first stop produced 3 of my target birds: Glaucous-winged, Mew and California. What was of most importance to me was having found and identified these species on my own. Viewing was easy here and the gulls were only about 100 yds off. The first bird I noticed was this adult Glaucous-winged Gull that probably has some Western genes:

Wingtips a shade darker than expected on a pure GWGU.


1st cycle GWGU. The wings on this bird suggest a pure individual.

2nd cycle GWGU with WEGUs. Note the clean underparts and plain upperparts of this Glaucous-winged compared to the 2nd cycle Western Gull back to the left. Also, the adult WEGU in the front is probably of the southern race wymani due to its pale iris and relatively dark mantle.

It should be noted that Glaucous-winged Gull frequently hybridizes with Western, Herring and Glacous Gull in a south to north manner, respectively, from Oregon to northern Alaska. I'm sure I saw more Glaucous-winged hybrids than pure individuals on this trip. It is very common to come across GWGU X WEGU crosses, sometimes called Olympic Gull, and not uncommon to find GWGU X HERG hybrids. GWGU X HERG hybrids, sometimes called Cook-Inlet Gull, can be mistook for Thayer's Gull. Here is a large bird that superficially resembles Thayer's. 

The white edges to the primaries may suggest Thayer's but the size of this individual is much more telling. The upperparts are a bit more frosty than Thayer's and the bill is that of Herring -- certainly not Glaucous-winged.

Then came the Mew Gulls. I called, "Mew Gulls landing on the beach"! The locals I was birding with raised their binoculars. "Oh yeah", said one birder with not an ounce of excitement in her voice as I jumped in joy. I'm fascinated by how relative birding is. One man's prize bird is another man's junk bird! You can appreciate the size differences here in this shot:

That's a Ring-billed in the foreground.

A beautiful feature of this species is the large white tongues and mirrors.
Also, the extensive white primary tips are not found in many gull species.



1st cycle Mew Gull. Note the exceptionally petite bill, large eye and long primary projection.

The thick white trailing edge to the secondaries is also very distinctive in Mew Gull.

Not long after this (maybe 5 minutes), a group of California Gulls appeared out of no where. Well, I'm sure they had made a graceful landing but I was too busy looking at the GWGU and MEGUs. My first impression was that they were similar to Ring-billeds but there was something disturbingly different. Obvious features that jumped out at me were the prominent red gonys spots and the dark irides. Body size also seemed large, but not as large as I had expected; Not Herring Gull large, but not a "dinky" Ring-billed either (BTW, have I mentioned I know a birder who drove over 2300 miles to see a Ring-billed Gull in Germany?). There was something elegant about these gulls. There weren't many options but I stalled in my ID. "Oh, those are California Gulls", I said to myself. I blame the brief brain-block on the euphoric state I fell into after seeing the Mew Gulls.


Mantle color is relatively dark in CAGU and MEGU (L.c. brachyrhynchus) when compared to
species like American Herring Gull and Ring-billed.

One distinguishing mark that easily separates this adult from an American Herring Gull is leg color.


Here is a dusky 1st cycle CAGU showing the classic pinkish bill that is sharply demarcated with a black subterminal tip.


This 2nd cycle is showing an obvious bluish-gray tinge on the tibia as many CAGUs do.

The most unique of the gull species I observed is certainly Heermann's Gull. This species falls under what Steve N.G. Howell and Jon Dunn call the "Primitive White-headed Gulls". It disperses north from Mexico along the western coast after breeding. Many individuals are year-round residents along California's coast. 

Basic adult Heermann's Gull

2nd cycle Heermann's

Heermann's Gull behaves much like a jaeger in that it harasses other gulls and often engages in kleptoparasitic chases. I've witnessed firsthand where an adult Heermann's forced a much larger adult Western Gull to forefit its catch. 

Western Gull fleeing from a Heermann's Gull.

Overall, the trip was very rewarding and, as always, the only thing I could have asked for was more time. I've come to learn that there's nothing difficult about pinning an identification to a gull in its expected range. What is profound is identifying the abberant idividual out of range.